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Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of bioactive fractions of Symplocos polyandra leaves
Symplocos polyandra, locally known as balakbakan, is distributed throughout Southeast Asia, especially in the Philippines. The lack of available literature regarding the phytochemistry of this plant species prompted the conduct of testing of its potential antioxidant activity and quantification of its total flavonoid content and phenolic content. Balakbakan leaves were collected, exhaustively extracted with methanol, and fractionated on a silica gel column. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyI (DPPH) assay showed that the acetone fraction has the highest percent DPPH radical inhibition with 86.41% at 500 ppm compared to 0.5 mM ascorbic acid at 87.61%. The acetone - methanol fraction has the highest ferric reducing capacity with a value of 208.24 μM ascorbic acid equivalents at 500 ppm. The total phenolic content of the different fractions ranged from 21.88 to 29.99 pg/mL catechin equivalents, with hexane - acetone fractions having the highest value. The flavonoid content ranged from 14.28 to 16.64 pg/mL catechin equivalents, with the methanol fraction having the highest value. The compounds responsible for the high antioxidant activity may not be a phenolic or flavonoid. Fractions from Symplocos polyandra are a promising source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity test and analyses of alkaloid and chlorophyll content of the leaves is recommended for the leaves to be developed into tea products....
Antioxidant dietary fiber from the segment membrane of calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) waste peels
Calamansi is a condiment used in a vast variety of Filipino dishes, as well as an ingredient in various beverages, such as calamansi juice. Calamansi peels are discarded as waste. Thus, this research study was conducted ...
Potential alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of bioactive fractions from alugbati (Basella alba) leaves
This study evaluated the potential in vitro inhibitory activity of Basella alba leaves against enzyme markers of diabetes mellitus, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. The dried plant sample was ground into fine powder, defatted, and soaked in methanol to obtain the crude extract. The crude methanolic extract of Basella alba was then fractionated sequentially in acetone-methanol mixtures with increasing solvent polarity ratios. Fractions obtained were evaluated for their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. The standard drug, acarbose inhibited 37.44 ± 7.65%, 83.99 ± 0.86%, and 86.52 ± 0.40% of α-amylase activity at 10, 30, and 50 ppm. The highest inhibition was observed in the acetone-methanol (4:1) fraction which inhibited 57.80 ± 0.71%, 56.39 ± 0.49%, and 46.94 ± 0.26% of α-amylase activity, followed by the acetone fraction with inhibitory activity of 22.24 ± 0.41%, 38.05 ± 0.68%, and 46.62 ± 0.32% at increasing concentrations of 50, 200, and 350 ppm, respectively. The acetone-methanol (1:4) mixture exhibited the lowest activity at 8.00 ± 0.35% for 50 ppm, and 0.61 ± 0.27% for 200 ppm. However, no inhibitory activity was demonstrated in any of the fractions of Basella alba against α-glucosidase. Total flavonoid content analysis revealed that all fractions have the same flavonoid content. Basella alba may serve an essential role in managing the risk of diabetes mellitus and is recommended for consumption on a regular basis....
Antioxidant activity and total phenolics and flavonoids contents of bioactive fractions of calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) peels
The purpose of this study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of fractions from epicarpium of Citrofortunella microcarpa (Philippine Lime) peels extract. Dried epicarpium of peels were extracted with methanol and fractionated with silica column and subjected to DPPH and FRAP assays as well as determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. Three fractions were obtained after silica gel fractionation. The acetone-methanol fraction had the highest antioxidant activity with 81.06% DPPH radical inhibition and ferric reducing capacity of 1420.33 pM Fe<sup>2+</sup> released, in comparison with ascorbic acid standard of 88.26% DPPH inhibition and ferric reducing activity of 502.038 ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. The acetone-methanol fraction also contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 73.26 and to 55.11 μg/mL catechin equivalents, respectively. This demonstrates that the high antioxidant activity of the acetone-methanol fraction can be attributed to its high total phenolic and flavonoid content. Value could be added to calamansi waste peels by developing the peels extracts into products such as high antioxidant functional foods, or antioxidant dermal cream or ointments....
Bioactive components from cucamelon (Melothria scabra) with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity
Cucamelons (Melothria scabra) are found growing in the wild in the Philippines. The lack of available literature regarding the plant species prompted to conduct of this study. This study aimed to extract and fractionate bioactive components from cucamelon with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Cucamelon fruit samples were obtained from Brgy. Pagsanga-an Pavia, Iloilo, extracted with methanol, fractionated using silica column chromatography, and assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results show that most but not all of the fractions have α-amylase inhibitory activity. Only four fractions showed α-amylase activity, namely, acetone (8.97 ± 1.54), acetone: methanol, 4:1 (15.54 ± 2.12), acetone: methanol, 3:2 (11.30 ± 2.51), and acetone: methanol, 1:4 (17.94 ± 2.19). Only one fraction had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which is acetone: methanol, 3:2 (3.59 ± 1.10). Cucamelon has a low inhibitory activity for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, enzyme markers of diabetes, which can be compensated by increasing the daily intake. It is recommended that unripe cucamelon fruits can be eaten regularly as salads, or pickled to help prevent the risk of developing diabetes....
Potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of bioactive fractions from calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) peels
Calamansi fruits are commonly used in the Philippines and the peels are discarded as wastes. Epicarpium of calamansi peels were selected for analysis in this study in order to determine their potential in vitro inhibition ...