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Biblical allusions in Leo Tolstoy’s select short stories: A multi-critique literary reading
Objectives This dissertation theorizes that Leo Tolstoy’s five (5) select stories: Father Sergius, The Devil, Master and Man, Three Deaths, and The Three Hermits contain Biblical Allusions. Methodology This study is qualitative in nature and uses the formalistic and inter-textual analysis approaches in finding the biblical allusions in the select stories of Leo Tolstoy. It also employs mimetic approach in extracting the values delineated in each of the select story. Findings Based on the critical-analytical textual investigation, the study reveals the following findings: 1) Leo Tolstoy’s select stories: "Three Deaths," "The Three Hermits," "The Devil," "Father Sergius," and "Master and Man" were found to have Biblical allusions in terms of literary figure (character), event, images, and symbolism which are potential tools for creating a guide for values integration in the teaching of literature; 2) Collectively, the images, symbols and realities in the select stories that allude to the Bible in terms of literary figure (characters), events, and symbolism mimic life in Biblical realities and reflect life in reality; these literary events, images, symbols, and figures are found in the Old and New Testament of the Bible which are experienced by the real Biblical characters in their time; and the values delineated in the select stories are the value of self-control, godliness, contentment, faith, and sincerity and spirituality which are taught all across the Old Testament Proverbs and Poetry and the New Testament Gospels and Epistles of Apostle Paul in the Bible; and the select stories under investigation are found to have invaluable lessons in life and values that can be extracted for value integration guide for the teaching of literature using both fiction with biblical allusions and the Bible itself as the final authority and measuring standard in teaching life’s philosophies and moral values. Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following are hereby recommended: 1. The investigation of classical literary works with Biblical allusions can sharpen and ripen one’s mind to think critically, analytically, which will be helpful in one’s assimilation of ideologies, principles, and philosophies in life; 2. Using the analysis of Biblically alluded characters, events, and symbols is one of the best tools to view life’s realities that embody the collective behavior of humankind, universal conditions, and aspirations. Thus, from the lens of Biblical allusions, the mimesis of life’s realities be utilized to enrich one’s understanding of human state and redirect one’s perspective of values; and 3. Mimetic analysis vis-a-vis Biblical allusions be used to uncover sublime life’s lessons, principles and philosophies for integration of values in teaching literature not just for entertainment but for indispensable lessons gained from real experience of Bible characters which are reflected in fictional literary characters and events of fiction stories....