Motivation, coping strategies, engagement and academic achievement of elementary grade pupils
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This study is descriptive, relational, and predictive in nature, which utilized a one-shot survey design. The survey is designed to query elementary pupils directly about their educational experiences by noting their perception specifically concerning the motivation for learning, coping with academic problems, and their type of engagement as these relate to their academic achievement in elementary school learning and other experiences. The purpose of this research is to compare the degree of motivational dynamics, coping strategies, engagement, and academic achievement as perceived by 283 elementary grade pupils sampled from 1267 grade 5 and grade 6 enrolled in a private and public elementary school in the city of Iloilo, during the school year 2008-2009. The instrument used in this study was adapted from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire which was pilot- tested in one of the elementary schools in the city of Iloilo to determine the reliability in the Philippine setting, Data collection was administered personally and the data analysis utilized descriptive statistical tools and inferential statistical tools. Descriptive statistics used were frequency counts, percents, means, tables, and summary statistics. Inferential statistics employed were Chi-Square, Gamma, Partial and Multiple Correlation. Findings The following are the major findings of the study: Of the total 283 elementary pupils included in this study, 147 were grade five pupils and 136 were grade six pupils; 111 were boys and 172 were girls; 44.5 percent were 11 years old, 47.7 percent were aged 12 and remaining were ages 10 and 13. Most parents, 89.4 percent fathers and 89.8 percent mothers, have attained a college education. Less than one-half of the pupils’ fathers were professional but 44.5 percent of the mothers were not working or gainfully employed and were just plain housewives. About one-third of the respondents’ parents had income below the Poverty line based on the National Statistics Office Poverty Line Income Classification. The average family monthly income of the respondent’s parents was only P19, 982. About 66.7 percent of families have income above the Poverty Line. Three in every four of the elementary pupils had intrinsic motivation while only one in every four pupils had extrinsic motivation. As to coping with school difficulties there were 75.9 percent of elementary pupils used help-seeking as coping strategy in dealing with school problems, while 64 percent used concealment coping strategies. Data revealed that elementary pupils had high responses to both behavioral and emotional engagement when confronted with difficulties in school. There were 89.2 percent of elementary pupils used behavioral engagement, while 87.6 percent used emotional engagement in dealing with school activities. Three in every ten of the pupils had high academic achievement by having a final grade of 90 percent and above, 42 percent of them had average academic achievement while more than one-fifth of them had low academic achievement with a rating of only 84 percent and below. The average rating for the whole group was 87.18 percent which is considered an average achievement. In relating pupils personal characteristics with motivation, coping strategies, engagement, and academic achievement, the data revealed that: pupils’ motivation is not in any way influenced by their personal characteristics such as age, grade level sex, fathers’ educational attainment, and family monthly income but was affected by the educational attainment of pupils’ mothers. Pupils whose mothers had higher educational attainment were more intrinsically motivated than those pupils whose mothers had only basic education. pupils’ coping strategies are independent of pupils’ as age, grade level, sex, parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation, and family monthly income. the occupation of pupils’ mothers was significantly related to their academic engagement. Pupils whose mothers were unskilled used both behavioral and emotional engagement in dealing with school work. On the other hand, pupils whose mothers were professionals used emotional rather than behavioral engagement, while those pupils whose mothers were not working used behavioral rather than emotional engagement. pupils, age, grade level, sex, parents' educational attainment, fathers’ occupation, and parents’ monthly income, do not in any way influence pupils’ type of engagement in dealing with school work. Generally, pupils were both behavioral and emotionally engaged in dealing with school activities. There was a significant relationship between pupils’ sex and occupation of their fathers and their academic achievement. Girls showed higher academic achievement than boys. Pupils whose fathers were professional were better achievers than pupils whose fathers were only skilled and unskilled. However, pupils' academic achievement is independent of the occupation of the pupils’ mothers. The relationship between pupils’ age, and grade level and their academic achievement was weak and negative which means that as the age and grade level of pupils increase, their academic achievement tends to slightly decrease. There was moderate and positive relationship between the educational attainment of pupils’ fathers and their academic achievement and a weak but positive relationship between the educational attainment of pupils’ mothers and their academic achievement. Weak but positive relationship was also found between parents monthly income and pupils’ achievement. The pupils’ motivation is significantly related to their coping strategies engagement and academic achievement. Pupils who were intrinsically motivated used help-seeking coping strategy, were behaviorally and emotionally engaged, and had higher achievement than those pupils who were extrinsically motivated. Pupils’ coping strategies were significantly related with their engagement but not and with their academic achievement. Pupils who used help-seeking coping strategy tend to be both behavioral and emotional in engagement but their coping strategies did not in any way influence their academic achievement. The type of engagement of pupils was significantly related to their academic achievement. Pupils who were both behavioral and emotional in engagement tend to have higher academic achievement than those pupils who were either behavioral or emotional in engagement. The 'Binomial regression of motivation and academic achievement when all other variables are controlled revealed that Motivation shows a negative and significant correlations with academic achievement. Even “partialing out” or controlling coping strategies the correlation remains the same and when engagement was controlled, the correlation dropped. However, when coping strategies and engagement were controlled, the correlation is still negative or inverse but still dropped and still shows significant correlations with academic achievement and motivation even these controlled variables were removed. The drop of-.006 indicates the amount of influence of coping strategies and engagement on academic achievement-motivation relationships is quite minimal. Based on the aforementioned findings of the study, the following conclusions were made: • Most of the respondents were ages 11- 12, girls, whose parents were college level, professionals, but with average income, have intrinsic rather than extrinsic, motivation; utilized help-seeking coping strategy, used both behavioral and emotional in engagement, and have average achievement level. • Pupils motivation is independent of their age, grade level, sex, lathers' educational attainment, fathers’ occupation, mothers’ occupation and family income, but influenced by their mothers’ educational attainment. • Pupils' coping strategies are also independent of their as age, sex, parents’ education attainment, parents’ occupation, and parents’ monthly income do not influence pupils coping strategies. • Pupils’ engagement was influenced by their mothers’ occupation but not by their age, grade level, sex, parents educational attainment, fathers’ occupation, parents’ monthly income. • The influenced on pupils’ achievement was minimal but negative by their sex, grade level, minimal but positive by their mothers’ educational attainment and parents’ monthly income, and moderate and positive by their fathers’ educational attainment. However, pupils’ academic achievement was significantly influenced by their sex. Girls achieved better academically than boys. • The pupils’ type of motivation influenced their coping strategies, their type of their engagement and their academic achievement. Their coping strategy is also related to their engagement but does not in any ways influence their academic achievement. • The type of engagement that pupils used in dealing with school work affects their academic achievement. Pupils who are both emotional and behavioral in engagement tend to have higher achievement than those who are either behaviorally or emotionally engaged. Results of the binomial regression analysis of motivation and academic achievement when all other variables are controlled were found to be significant related. Multiple correlation analysis of academic achievement with motivation and coping strategies, academic achievement with motivation and engagement, academic achievement with coping strategies and engagement, and academic achievement with motivation, coping strategies and engagement shows a weak relationship. The researcher came up with following recommendations To the School Administrator • Develop a program that will improve the academic achievement ofthe learners, increasing the average rating of pupils from merely average (87%) to high rating (90% and higher) by: a. providing in service education program that will enhance the ability of elementary school teachers in motivating pupils especially those skills that will attract pupils to feel good in school, have fun, interested in learning new things in schools. These are components of emotional engagement which contribute positively contribute to academic achievement of pupils; b. strengthening remedial instruction after class or during pupils’ vacant periods where teachers can help pupils who did not learn adequately or understood the lesson during the regular instruction period; and c. improving school guidance and counseling services of the school by providing adequate number of qualified guidance counselors who can provide assistance to students seeking help and by providing guidance room conducive to guidance and counseling activities. To the Teachers • The teachers must strive to improve their skills in motivating learners. They must explore means by which pupils can develop intrinsic motivation among the learners. They must be available to extend to those pupils seeking help. Classroom atmosphere which is learner-friendly must be established. Pupils must be encouraged to see them, tell them of their problems, and seek their help when needed, rather than shy away from them. Teachers must strive to develop the learners’ confidence in them that they are willing and able to extend help to them when they encounter problems regarding their school work. To the Guidance Counsellor •The guidance counselor must strive to develop a guidance program that will make the learners feel that: a. the guidance counselor is their friend who can help them of their problems; b. the guidance office is a place to go where learners can seek help regarding their problems in school, and c. the guidance office is learners-friendly office. To the Parents •Parents must also know the emotional needs of their children. Parents are teachers’ partner in the development of the pupils, especially in their academic achievement. Parents must help teachers in encouraging their children to seriously get involved in school activities, to do well in their school work. •Parents must show interest in the schooling of their children by attending meetings and conferences in school called for them, • Parents must also be available and willing to provide help to their children especially in their homework. To Researcher • Further research must be conducted along motivation, coping strategies, engagement and their relations to academic achievement. Studies along this area are limited, especially in the Philippines. Wider area of coverage should be included in the study.
Delariman, I. J. , Jr. (2012). Motivation, coping strategies, engagement and academic achievement of elementary grade pupils (Unpublished Master's thesis). Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City.
DepartmentSchool of Graduate Studies
DegreeDoctor of Education
GSL Theses 378.242 D375
xiii, 103 leaves
- Doctor of Education