Knowledge, self-esteem and child-training method of child-caregivers of KII pupils in Jaro district, Iloilo City
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This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, self-esteem and child training method practiced by child-caregivers. The study aimed to determine whether there is significant relationship between knowledge, self-esteem and child-training method practiced by child-caregivers when they are grouped according to selected characteristics such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment and previous experience in caregiving. The respondents in this study were 183 randomly chosen child-caregivers of Kinder II pupils from Jaro district, Iloilo City. The data was gathered through one-shot survey, using one standardized and two researcher-made data gathering instruments. The study made use of descriptive relational design and employed statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentages, means, and the Cramer’s V and Gamma for test of association. The data was processed using the SPSSS PC Version 10. The results of the study showed that the child-caregivers were on the average 33.44 years old; female, married, college educated with previous non-formal experience in caregiving. The result of the study showed that the child-caregivers had an average knowledge on child psychology and development. When their responses were analyzed according to four aspects of development, the child-caregivers fared well in their knowledge on the social aspect of development but they were least familiar with the physical aspect of child’s development The child-caregivers had an average level of self-esteem. In closer scrutiny of their responses, most of them said that they had - a normal amount of self-respect, sure of themselves and great deal of confidence in their decisions. However, majority of them said that they - frequently question whether they are of value and worth from others, shy and self-conscious in social gatherings and had difficulty in believing the sincerity of appreciation. The child-caregivers in this study preferred the authoritative child training method. In their responses to child’s behavior the following were observed: In tutoring at home they were flexible by observing the child’s difficulty and would repeat the lesson if necessary, they suspend judgment by hearing the child’s version when being reported to show hostility in school, deal tantrums with ultimatum but also gave punishment. They believed that effective implementation of rules and regulations are through consensus. Their reaction when they caught the child telling a lie was to give punishment but saw to it that the child understood why he/she is being punished. Confronted with difficult school assignment, child-caregivers in this study preferred to be frank and accept their limitations. As a whole, the level of knowledge on child psychology and development was independent of child-caregivers’ demographic characteristics such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment and previous experience in caregiving. However, among the aspects of child’s development, caregivers’ sex as well as educational attainment was found to be associated with the level of knowledge on the emotional and cognitive development. Child-caregivers’ educational attainment significantly influence their level of self-esteem but not with their age, sex, civil status nor previous experience in caregiving. It was also noted that the respondents were Authoritative child-caregiver and that the child training method they practiced had no bearing on their age, educational attainment and previous experience, except with sex and civil status. Based on the significant findings of this study, the following conclusions and generalizations were derived: 1. Generally, the child-caregivers in this study had an average knowledge on child psychology and development Among the four aspects of development, the child-caregivers fared better in the social aspect and were least familiar with the physical aspects of child development 2. The child-caregivers’ level of self-esteem is average. They perceived themselves to have a normal amount of self-respect with great confidence on their decisions, however, they tend to often times question their worth as a person and were self-conscious and shy being with people or in social gatherings. 3. The child-caregivers practiced an authoritative style of child training. In their responses to different behavior of children left in their care it was noted: that they tend to be flexible in tutoring, giving the child a chance to explain of wrong-doings in school before they pass judgment or punishment, do not tolerate tantrums but gave ultimatum, reacted to lying by punishment but saw to it that the child understand why he/she is being punished, believed on consensus for effective implementation of rules and regulations at home, and, being confronted with difficult assignment in schools, being frank of not knowing the answer was the most preferred reaction. 4. The child-caregivers’ age, sex, civil status, educational attainment and previous experience in caregiving do not influence their level of knowledge on child psychology and development 5. The child-caregivers’ level of self-esteem has a significant relationship with their educational attainment. However, their level of self-esteem has no significant relationship with age, sex, civil status or previous experience in caregiving. 6. The child-caregivers’ child sex and civil status have a significant bearing on the child training method they practiced but not on their age, educational attainment and previous experience in caregiving. 7. There is no significant relationship between child caregivers’ training method and the level of knowledge on child psychology and development and self-esteem. In view of the significant findings, generalizations and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are forwarded: 1. Since the child-caregivers in this study had an average knowledge on child psychology and development in spite their being college educated, the Learning and Helping Institutions; namely, the Department of Education and the Department of Social Welfare and development, should include in their curriculum and action plan/programs the formal or institutionalized caregivers’ class. In Mother’s (Caregiver’s) Class, the inclusion of lessons on child psychology and development should be observed. 2. Since the caregivers’ level of self-esteem is average in spite the fact that they were college-educated, there is a need to develop in them a more positive self-regard and this may be enhanced through involvement and exposures. The Learning Institutions under the Department of Education should provide avenues wherein caregivers’ morale be lifted up through including caregivers’ welfare in their development plan and school programs, or to organize support group systems for caregivers. A diploma on Caregiving could boost a caregivers’ morale. 3. Mass media as an effective tool for information dissemination can be utilized. To help eliminate misconceptions and mal-practice on child caregiving, radio drama or television soap or tele novella ought to focus more on family wellness and development using intelligent and well-studied plots instead of feuds and perversions; or sit-coms to share insights of the hidden and undervalued know-how and ethical expertise in caregiving. 4. To further enhance the caregivers’ morale, employers and the family of these caregivers ought to treat them well, pay them fairly, give appreciation for a job well-done and reprove them with their dignity intact. A way to develop their social skills is for employers to allow them a day off to attend activities, studies and training for personal and skills development 5. To further validate the findings of this investigation, the researcher recommends the replication of the present research using other variables such as salary, working relationship and caregivers’ attitudes.
faraon, O. V. S. (2006). Knowledge, self-esteem and child-training method of child-caregivers of KII pupils in Jaro district, Iloilo City (Unpublished Master's thesis). Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City.
DepartmentSchool of Graduate Studies
DegreeMaster of Science in Guidance and Counseling
GSL Theses 371.4072 F221
xii, 99 leaves