A study of faculty turnover in the Iloilo Normal School from 1946 to 1952
Defense Panel Chair
MetadataShow full item record
Growth of private schools in Iloilo City. Before the Second World War Iloilo did not have numerous private schools. The important ones were Central Philippine College, San Agustin College, Assumption College, San Jose College, Colegio del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, Santo Angel College, and the Iloilo Institute. All but the last are church-related schools. Central Philippine College is a Protestant coeducational school, while the others are Roman Catholic schools. Of the Roman Catholic schools only San Agustin College is coeducational. All the others are still colleges for girls. Before the war not one of the private schools was allowed to offer the Junior Normal curriculum and only Central Philippine College and San Agustin College could confer the B. S. E. degree. Only one public school in Iloilo, the Iloilo Normal School, was allowed to offer the Junior Normal curriculum. After the war private schools became more numerous. The Roman Catholic schools, because their buildings were not totally ravaged by the war, promptly opened their doors to the public. Central Philippine College, although its buildings were totally ruined, also opened classes, not in its old site in Jaro, but in the Student Center in La Paz. The Iloilo Institute, not to lag behind the others, rented buildings near the Iloilo Provincial High School and changed its name to Panay College. It also flourished as a non-sectarian coeducational school. Besides the pre-war schools new schools opened their door to the public. The Philippine Women's University, as well as the University of the Philippines, a public institution, set up branches in Iloilo City. Other large private colleges such as the Iloilo City Colleges the Lopez Jaena Memorial College, the Visayan Central Colleges, and the Lincoln School were also established. The Iloilo City Colleges is a coeducational non-sectarian school established by Vice-President Fernando Lopez in 1947. Because it was advertised as the school for the common people where the "cream" of the public school teachers transferred, it was able to swell its enrollment to thousands The college was divided into two units, the Iloilo Unit and the La Paz Unit. Lopez Jaena College, on the other hand, was advertised as "the school for students with brains", who had to perspire in order to earn credits. Parents like this school, which was established by a group of private and public school teachers who pooled their resources to form a "cooperative", owned and managed by them. This is a non-sectarian coeducational stock corporation teachers' college. Another non-sectarian coeducational school is the Visayan Central Colleges. It got its new name in 1949 when Mr. Roque Javellana, according to his statement, bought 99 2/3 per cent of the stock. Before 1949 it was called "The Visayan Vocational School", the purpose of which was to train students in secretarial courses. At present there are many other small vocational schools in Iloilo City offering secretarial courses, hair culture, sewing, cooking and other home arts courses. All of these small schools are flourishing too. Another coeducational college is the Lincoln School, managed by Attorney Juan Jamora. This is owned by Attorney Jamora and his wife, Ester Habana. One of the purposes in establishing this college is the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith. However, the teachers employed are laymen. All the private colleges, except the small vocational schools, were given permits by the Director of the Bureau of Private Schools to offer the Junior Normal curriculum. Because of the many new busy institutions opened, there arose a great demand for teachers. Statement of purposes and problems. Teacher shortage had not been very much felt till after the close of the Second World War. In the Iloilo Normal School, the school year 1947 was the most acute year. Six teachers tendered their resignation; four of them transferred to different private schools; one of them transferred to the Philippine Normal School and another changed her occupation. The period from July 1945 to April 1948 was the most critical. During this time private schools sprouted and flourished like the proverbial mushroom. After three years of enforced absence from schools because of the Second World War, students' thirst for knowledge could not be satisfied and they crowded schoolhouses, both public and private. Men and women, married and single, parents and children, rich and poor, young and old, attended classes. Even expectant women were seen going to school. The government, too, in order to make up for lost time, tried to accomodate all school children. For example, in 1947 Congress first appropriated 3,400,000 pesos for extension classes. When reports from different regions showed that the amount was inadequate, the appropriation was increased to 5,100,000 pesos.1 For school year 1949, according to the Director of Public Schools, no less than 9,000 extension classes had to be opened. The General Appropriation Act for 1948 to 1949, Republic Act 320, provided for the amount of 6,000,000 pesos for 3,000 extension classes which were opened at the beginning of the school year. The remaining 6,000 classes were also opened, but the deficit had to be appropriated by Congress when it convened in January.1 It is evident that the government tried its best to meet the school crisis, for as long as there were thirty to forty children to form a class, a teacher was provided. It was no wonder that a teacher scarcity resulted. One incident showed plainly that the teacher supply during the liberation was at a low level. It also showed how one college tried to get seasoned teachers to be in its payroll and students to enroll in its classes. Its propagandist rode in a jeepney installed with a loud speaker. Going around the principal streets of the city, he proclaimed, "Enroll in our school now. The best teachers of the public schools have left their schools and are now teaching in our college."2 Mother incident concerned a private school administrator who was enrolled in the graduate school of a certain college. He was attending a class in "Problems in Education" of which class the Investigator was also a member* He told the students that if the experienced teachers still teaching in the public schools had been offered higher salaries like himself, they also would have transferred to the private schools. It seemed to appear as if most public school teachers of great worth had already transferred to the private schools. This study was made in order to determine the effect of abnormal conditions on the turnover of the postwar faculty of the Iloilo Normal School. The period covered is from July 1945 to April 1952, a span of seven years. The following problems are involved: first, what is the per cent of the yearly faculty turnover from the school year 1946 to the school year 1952? Second, what caused the faculty turnover from 1946 to 1952? Third, did the best qualified teachers in the Iloilo Normal School resign in order to teach in private schools? Fourth, what factors influenced teachers to remain at their posts? What was the influence of each of the following factors: sex, age, civil status, educational qualifications, civil service eligibility, security of tenure, other privileges?
Introduction and statement of the problem
Segovia, C. E. (1955). A study of faculty turnover in the Iloilo Normal School from 1946 to 1952 (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City.
DepartmentSchool of Graduate Studies
DegreeMaster of Arts in Education
GSL Theses 378.242 Se3