A comparative study of general secondary education in India and the Philippines
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Secondary education has a vital role to play in any program of education for any community. In India, it provides teachers for both elementary and adult education. In the Philippines, as well as in India, it prepares pupils for the universities and other institutions of higher learning. Besides, secondary education is the stage which in all the countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. The present study was undertaken to investigate the current status of the educational set-up of general secondary education of India and the Philippines. As a comparative study, it aimed to compare the current aims and objectives, the administrative organization and supervision, the curriculum of general secondary education, the methods of financing and the systems of examinations and evaluation. One of the major purposes for the present study was to unveil the whole structure of the general secondary education of the Philippines and India, and to examine the validity of each nation’s education principles as applied to its particular culture and experience with its concomitant problems of standard of life in relation to the other country’s culture. It must be stressed that the present study can present a challenge to educators of both countries in initiating changes and qualitative improvement in the reconstruction of general secondary education of their public schools. The data for this research were gathered through the study of books, government publications, educational magazines, bulletins, circulars and memoranda of the two countries as well as by interviews with local school administrators. Both India and the Philippines became democratic republics just after World War II. Tremendous progress has been made in the field of general secondary education in both the countries. However, marked differences exist in the educational systems of these two countries. The educational system of the Philippines is highly centralized. The program of general secondary education in the public schools is under the control of the Bureau of Public Schools. The general secondary curriculum under the 2-2 Plan is the standard curriculum for the public high schools. One of the great problems faced by general secondary schools is how to establish an effective and stable system of financing these schools. Tuition fees from students are the principal source of support. India has a decentralized system of education. General secondary education is under the direct and full control of the provincial or state governments. At present the uniform pattern of education consists of three years of higher secondary education with diversified courses to give a vocational orientation to this stage of education. The Board of Secondary Education supervises and controls the matriculation and higher secondary examinations in each state. In some states, it lays down rules and regulations for the schools. The governments of India and the Philippines are making conscientious efforts to improve and raise the standards of the present general secondary education programs. In this respect, the writer wishes to recommend that the national government of the Philippines increase national aid and enforce collection of educational taxes earmarked for the development of the 2-2 Plan. As for India, external examinations should be replaced by internal evaluation and a system of cumulative records should be maintained systematically for every pupil by all schools. In addition, Indian school heads should be oriented to the philosophy of supervision as a means of improving the teaching-learning situation to replace the present program of school inspection. Lastly, guidance and counseling programs should be organized in all general secondary schools in India.
Ao, I. A. (1966). A comparative study of general secondary education in India and the Philippines (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City.
DepartmentSchool of Graduate Studies
DegreeMaster of Arts in Education
GSL Theses 378.242 Ao1