Domestic violence in Kalibo, Aklan: Experiences, perceived effects, and coping responses among women of reproductive age: A qualitative and [quantitative] study
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Domestic violence is a problem which continues to plague not just the nation but the whole world. The family is often equated with sanctuary - a place where individuals seek love, safety, security, and shelter. But the evidence shows that it is also a place that imperils lives, and breeds some of the most drastic forms of violence perpetrated against women and children. This research is both a qualitative and quantitative study on domestic violence, focusing on the types of domestic violence, its perceived effects, and the coping responses of victims. Further, this study aimed to describe the profile of victims and perpetrators, the victims’ abuse experiences, their perception of the effects of violence, and their coping responses to domestic violence. This study also examined abuse experience, perceived effects, and coping responses according to the victim’s profile. Thirty-two identified victims of domestic violence served as the key informants of this study. Four of the 32 and another victim referred by one respondent participated in the focus group discussion. Ten case studies were conducted among victims of different forms of abuse using structured and unstructured interview guide. The data were collected through key informant interviews, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with victims of abuse. Analysis of the data was purely descriptive and comparative. Actual stories and narratives were used as basis for the case studies. Majority of the 32 identified victims of abuse were 39 years old or older, married, attained high school education, were working, with monthly income of Php5, 000 or less, and with three to four children. On the other hand, most of the perpetrators were 22 to 33 years old, high school educated, were working, and with monthly income of Php5,001 to Php 10,000. The respondents experienced multiple abuses. All experienced psychological abuse. Most of them experienced economic abuse, while almost half suffered from physical violence. Verbal aggression was the most common form of psychological abuse, while slapping was the most frequently inflicted physical violence, while denial of basic needs was the most common economic abuse experienced. All the victims perceived psychological effects of the violence they have experienced, while most recognized physical effects, while less than a quarter of them perceived economic outcomes. The most common psychological effect as perceived by the victims was depression or sadness. Whereas, separation was greatly perceived as physical effect. The only identified economic effect is the possibility of borrowing an amount of money from others. In coping with the abused experienced, most victims employed appraisal-focused coping responses, followed by emotion-focused, and least was problem-focused coping responses. Keeping silent or employing denial was the most utilized among appraisal-focused responses, while of the emotion-focused coping responses, arguing with their partner has been done, and with problem-focused, looking for help from others was their choice to manage their abuse situation. Most of the victims who experienced psychological, physical, and economic abuse were on their thirties, married, attained high school to college or vocational education, employed, with 3 to 4 children, and monthly income of Php 5,000 and below. Similarly, most of the victims who perceived psychological, physical, and economic effects were in their thirties, married, have attained high school education, employed, with three to four children, and with monthly income of Php 5,000 and below. The study also found out that among victims who employed appraisal-focused, problem-focused, and emotion-focused coping responses most were 39 or older, married, educated, employed, had three to four children, and with monthly income of Php 5,000 and below. Furthermore, the study revealed all respondents who experienced psychological, economic, and physical abuse, all of them perceived psychological effects, recognized physical effects, but least likely to identify economic effects. The study also found out that victims of physical, economic, and psychological abuse, most frequently employed appraisal-focused coping responses. Likewise, those who perceived psychological and physical effects employed appraisal-focused coping responses, while those who recognized economic effects used appraisal- and emotion-focused responses. The total number of identified domestic violence victims was just a small portion of the big number of victims of domestic violence in Kalibo, Aklan. There is no typical victim or perpetrators of domestic violence. Victims and abusers come in any age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, numbers of children and monthly income. The higher prevalence of emotional/verbal abuse among women relative to other forms of abuse parallels the findings of other researchers. This figure seems to be a conservative estimate compared to the real numbers of victims who are physically abused in the whole community because of their fear of public shame they prefer to keep any shameful acts confined within the home. Although all forms of abuse could result to psychological, physical, and economic consequences, the study found out that the most possible consequence of domestic violence is psychological. Most victims of abuse use appraisal - focused coping responses such as such as keeping silent and leaving the abusive partner. Victims of domestic violence most often minimize or deny the fact that they are being abused by their partner. They are reluctant to disclose the abuse to family, friends, and authorities, and tend to keep the problem within themselves. Thus, many women suffer in silence and these results in lot of psychological impact. Any woman at any age is at risk of any type of abuse. The most likely to be victims of any forms of domestic violence are married women, and those with more children and with insufficient resources. Employment and education do not prevent one to be abused.
Abayon, R. A., & Victoriano, J. A. C. (2011). Domestic violence in Kalibo, Aklan: Experiences, perceived effects, and coping responses among women of reproductive age: A qualitative and quantitative study (Unpublished Master's thesis). Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City.
DepartmentSchool of Graduate Studies
DegreeMaster of Arts in Nursing
GSL Theses 610.73072 Ab18
xvi, 210 leaves
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