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Electromagnetic effects on seed germination of moringa cultivars
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2021-04)
Most recently, electromagnetic application in agriculture has increased since plant features were altered significantly in response to pre-sowing seed treatment. Moringa has an extraordinary range of industrial and medicinal uses. This miracle tree is an extremely precious plant with great nutritive importance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-sowing magnetic field (MF) treatments on seed germination and seedling growth in Moringa oleifera, M. peregrina and M. oleifera cultivar 'Periyakulam-1' (PKM-1). These laboratory experiments were carried out at the premises of the Sara bint Rached bin Ghonaim Research Chair for Cultivating non-Traditional Medicinal and Aromatic plants (SRC), PSAU, Alkharj (24°15'N, 47°30'E), KSA. Three treatments were established using a 75 mT (millitesla) MF with 30 min exposure duration to the seeds of: MFO (T1): seeds of Moringa oleifera; MFP (T2): seeds of M. peregrina; MFPKM (T3): seeds of PKM 1. The obtained results exhibited significant effects on most of the germination parameters; mean germination time (MGT), seedling vigour index (SVI), energy of germination (EG), and final germination percentage (FGP). M. peregrina exhibited the best attributes for most parameters compared to Moringa oleifera and M. oleifera cultivar 'Periyakulam-1' (PKM-1). These findings indicate the possible use of MF treatments for the seed germination and seedling growth of moringa that should be considered in further research studies....
Moringa - a vegetable tree for improved nutrition, health and income of smallholder farmers
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2017-05-09)
Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is a perennial softwood vegetable tree widely grown in the tropics of Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. Most parts of the tree are edible. The leaves and flowers are eaten as salad, as cooked vegetables, added to soups and sauces, or used to make tea. The young, tender pods - known as drumsticks - are highly valued as a vegetable in Asia. Moringa is nutrient-dense and rich in essential micronutrients and vitamins as well as antioxidants and bioavailable iron. According to data available at AVRDC's Nutrition Lab, moringa exceeds the micronutrient content of tomato, based on 100 g FW, by a factor of 9 to 38: β-carotene content - 15.28 mg (×38); vitamin C - 459 mg (×24); vitamin E - 25.25 mg (×22); iron - 10.09 mg (×19); folates - 93 µg (×19); antioxidant activity - 2858 TE (×9). Moringa is also rich in protein: 100 g of fresh moringa leaves contain 9.4 g of protein comprising all essential amino acids in nutritionally balanced proportions. Boiling fresh moringa leaves and dried powder in water enhances aqueous antioxidant activity and increases bioavailable iron by a factor of 3. Dried leaf powder is processed into moringa capsules and used as a dietary supplement. Depending on the genotype, leaf fresh weight of the first two harvests ranges from 560 g to 2.3 kg plant<sup>-1</sup>. Total fresh matter yield at first harvest (leaves and young shoots) depends on plant density and varies from 19.6 to 78 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with a plant density of 95,000 and 1 million plants, respectively. Moringa has great potential to generate income for smallholder farmers and to enhance environmental services by controlling soil and wind erosion, and by providing shade and clean water. Given its multiple uses and wide range of adaptability, moringa is an ideal crop for sustainable food production....
Progress in research and development of moringa at the World Vegetable Center
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2017-05-09)
The World Vegetable Center has a collection of over 50 moringa accessions, majority of which belong to M. oleifera. The planting of this species in southern Taiwan started some 35 years ago. The World Vegetable Center initiated research on moringa in 2001. A small project was established to introduce and evaluate a number of moringa accessions collected from Asia, Africa and USA. The accessions were evaluated for growth characteristics and horticultural traits, aiming at high leaf production and nutritional value. A total of 50 accessions were collected and from this collection, seeds of 42 accessions representing four species (Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala, M. drouhardii and M. peregrina) were germinated and transplanted to the field for seed multiplication, characterization and evaluation. Twenty-two accessions produced sufficient seeds for replicated evaluation trials and seed distribution. Ten promising accessions were selected and evaluated in replicated trials over a two-year period. Among those, three accessions showed fresh young shoot yield averaging 20-40 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The effects of leaf type (age), harvest season and variety on nutrient content were investigated as a component of this study. Results showed no significant differences for most nutrient contents among accessions. Mature leaves are more nutritious than young leaves or shoots. Nutrient content varied with harvest season. Calcium, vitamins A and E were higher in hot-wet season in southern Taiwan than during winter, whereas Fe and vitamin C were higher in cool-dry season than in summer. Subsequent field evaluation studies revealed the variability of Moringa accessions in terms of horticultural traits. The accessions varied significantly in plant height, stem diameter, leaf and stem biomass, number of side shoots, tolerance to flooding and survival after heavy rainfall and strong wind brought about by tropical typhoons. Superior and promising accessions are being multiplied to meet the increasing demand for seed and planting materials of moringa. During the last ten years, the World Vegetable Center has distributed moringa germplasm to universities, government organizations, non-governmental organizations and private companies in 15 countries. The Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Germany, Vietnam, Egypt, The Netherlands, and Pakistan were the top recipient countries. Moringa is also distributed in seed kits for home garden projects in Asia and Africa....
A study on the nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2021-04-15)
A study was conducted to determine and compare the growth characteristics and nutritional quality of M. oleifera and M. peregrina. Three moringa cultivars consisting of two M. oleifera cultivars (‘PKM-1’ and ‘Local’) and one M. peregrina cultivar were evaluated in pot experiments using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Pruning and sampling of leaves for biomass yield and nutritional quality analysis were performed when plants attained a height of 1 m. Young and fully expanded green leaves were sampled for nutritional analysis and biochemical components. Results showed that plant height and number of leaves differed significantly between the three cultivars. ‘PKM-1’ and the ‘Local’ cultivar were taller than M. peregrina, whereas, ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina produced a higher number of leaves than the ‘Local’ cultivar. There were no significant differences in the number of side branches among cultivars. Although there were no significant differences in leaf fresh weight among cultivars, M. peregrina and ‘PKM-1’ had a tendency of higher leaf fresh weight than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Both cultivars had significantly higher dry leaf biomass than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Significant differences in calcium, iron and anti-oxidant activity were found between the three cultivars. ‘PKM-1’ contained higher calcium than M. peregrina and the ‘Local’ cultivar. ‘PKM-1’ also contained higher iron than M. peregrina, but not significant compared to the ‘Local’ cultivar. Both ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina had significantly higher anti-oxidant activity than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Significant differences were also observed in nitrogen free extract, crude protein and crude fat. Nitrogen free extract content was higher in M. peregrina than in ‘PKM-1’ and ‘Local’ cultivar. The ‘Local’ cultivar contained higher crude fat than ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina. This study indicated that moringa cultivars differ in growth characteristics, selected nutritional qualities and biochemical components. Further studies should investigate and determine other nutritional qualities that are not covered including vitamins, amino acids and important anti-oxidants....