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Adaptability and horticultural characterization of Moringa accessions under Central Philippines conditions
(AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, 2013)
This study was conducted to determine the adaptability and describe the horticultural characteristics of Moringa oleifera Lam. accessions under central Philippines conditions. Eighteen Moringa accessions obtained from AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center were evaluated in observational trials at Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines in 2009. The accessions originated from India (3), Laos (1), Philippines (1), Taiwan (1), Tanzania (1), Thailand (10), and USA (1). Three-month-old seedlings were transplanted in nonreplicated plots at a spacing of 2 m between rows and 1.5 m between plants. Data were recorded on growth and stand survival, plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, fresh leaf yield, pod and seed production, and incidence of insect pests and diseases. Percentage seed germination ranged from 40 to 100%, with eight accessions having 100% and eight accessions 80% germination. Two accessions from Thailand had poor germination (40%). All seeds that germinated developed into healthy seedlings with 80 to 100% survival. At 28 weeks after second pruning, accessions Mo-2 (USA) and Mo-40 (India) produced the tallest plants (5.6 and 5.1 m, respectively), whereas Mo-34 (India) produced the shortest plants (2.9 m). Mean stem diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (Mo-34) to 8.5 cm (Mo4-Thailand). Mo-38 (Thailand) produced the highest number of branches (5.3), whereas Mo-33 (Philippines) showed the lowest number of branches (2.0) per plant. Two accessions from Thailand resulted in the highest leaf fresh weight, which exceeded 2 kg/plant from two prunings. Eight accessions produced leaf fresh biomass that exceeded 1 kg/plant. Mo-3 (Taiwan) developed the highest number of pods, whereas Mo-34 produced the highest number of seeds. Red mites (Tetranychus urticae), Coccinellid beetles (Coccinellidae), leaf-footed bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus) and whiteflies (Bemisia sp.) were present, but caused only minor damage to plants. Stem rot was the only disease observed in a few plants....
A study on the nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2021-04-15)
A study was conducted to determine and compare the growth characteristics and nutritional quality of M. oleifera and M. peregrina. Three moringa cultivars consisting of two M. oleifera cultivars (‘PKM-1’ and ‘Local’) and one M. peregrina cultivar were evaluated in pot experiments using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Pruning and sampling of leaves for biomass yield and nutritional quality analysis were performed when plants attained a height of 1 m. Young and fully expanded green leaves were sampled for nutritional analysis and biochemical components. Results showed that plant height and number of leaves differed significantly between the three cultivars. ‘PKM-1’ and the ‘Local’ cultivar were taller than M. peregrina, whereas, ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina produced a higher number of leaves than the ‘Local’ cultivar. There were no significant differences in the number of side branches among cultivars. Although there were no significant differences in leaf fresh weight among cultivars, M. peregrina and ‘PKM-1’ had a tendency of higher leaf fresh weight than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Both cultivars had significantly higher dry leaf biomass than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Significant differences in calcium, iron and anti-oxidant activity were found between the three cultivars. ‘PKM-1’ contained higher calcium than M. peregrina and the ‘Local’ cultivar. ‘PKM-1’ also contained higher iron than M. peregrina, but not significant compared to the ‘Local’ cultivar. Both ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina had significantly higher anti-oxidant activity than the ‘Local’ cultivar. Significant differences were also observed in nitrogen free extract, crude protein and crude fat. Nitrogen free extract content was higher in M. peregrina than in ‘PKM-1’ and ‘Local’ cultivar. The ‘Local’ cultivar contained higher crude fat than ‘PKM-1’ and M. peregrina. This study indicated that moringa cultivars differ in growth characteristics, selected nutritional qualities and biochemical components. Further studies should investigate and determine other nutritional qualities that are not covered including vitamins, amino acids and important anti-oxidants....
Horticultural characterization of AVRDC moringa germplasm in the Philippines and Taiwan
(International Society for Horticultural Science, 2015-12-06)
The major objective of this study was to evaluate a subset of the AVRDC Moringa oleifera germplasm collection for important horticultural traits in the Philippines and Taiwan. The 18 AVRDC moringa accessions originated from India, Laos, Philippines, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand and USA. Three-month-old seedlings were transplanted onto single-row raised beds spaced 1.5 m apart. Plants were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Data were collected on plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, canopy width, fresh and dry biomass (stems and leaves), days to flowering, and pod/seed yield. In Taiwan, one month after transplanting four accessions attained a plant height of above 1 m. Number of side branches ranged from 9 to 14 per plant. Differences in plant height and stem diameter were significant at 70 days after transplanting (DAT). Tallest plants (2.9 m) were observed in LSQUOMo-35RSQUO from Tanzania while LSQUOMo-8RSQUO from Thailand produced the largest stem diameter (36 cm). Leaf fresh weight and dry biomass was highest (15.8 and 9.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) for LSQUOMo-35RSQUO at 70 DAT. Survival and stand count decreased after two strong typhoons and severe flooding in 2009 and 2010. In the Philippines, accessions LSQUOMo-2RSQUO (USA) and LSQUOMo-40RSQUO (India) produced the tallest plants 28 weeks after second pruning. Mean stem diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (LSQUOMo-34RSQUO) to 8.5 cm (LSQUOMo-4RSQUO). LSQUOMo-38RSQUO (Thailand) produced the highest number of branches. Two accessions from Thailand (LSQUOMo-4RSQUO and LSQUOMo-14RSQUO) resulted in the highest leaf fresh weight, which exceeded 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> from two prunings, while LSQUOMo-29RSQUO (India) produced the highest dry leaf biomass. Most accessions tolerated waterlogged conditions with 60-100% plant survival stand count. The results indicate that there are moringa accessions with promising horticultural traits for the high rainfall climate of Southeast Asia....